Pollard, N: Complete Roman Legions | Pollard, Nigel, Berry, Joanne | ISBN: | Kostenloser Versand für alle Bücher mit Versand und Verkauf. Roman legions formed the largest units in the Roman army. In the early days of the republic, each legion consisted of around 3, well-trained. Les légions de Rome sous le Haut-Empire: actes du congrès de Parker, H.M.D. The Roman Legions revised edition (Cambridge.
Imperial Roman Legionaries- Caesar accomplished more with his legions, particularly against non Romans, than Diocletian did with his. Aside from Caesar being one of the all. The Roman legions under Caesar found their poor framework houseswhen they Two legion years ago Roman legions were stationed thereon the Via Claudia. Jan 27, - This Pin was discovered by Alex Casas. Discover (and save!) your own Pins on Pinterest.
Roman Legions Total Fighting Strength of a Legion VideoGlory of Rome - When Roman Legions march into Jerusalem
Legions often shared the same base with other legions. Detachments of legions were often seconded for lengthy periods to other bases and provinces, as operational needs demanded.
Legions often sported more than one emblem at the same time, and occasionally changed them. Legions raised by Caesar mostly carried a bull emblem originally; those of Augustus mostly a Capricorn.
For legions that are documented into the 4th century and beyond, we do not know when or how they were terminated. For legions disappearing from the record before , the reason certain or likely is given as:.
Province names and borders are assumed throughout the Principate period as at , during the rule of Trajan , and after the annexation of Dacia and Arabia Petraea.
The map above shows provinces at the end of Trajan's reign, They are the same as in , except that Armenia and Mesopotamia have been annexed they were abandoned soon after Trajan's death ; and Pannonia has been split into two the split occurred c.
Diocletian reorganized the Roman army, in order to better counter the threat of the Germanic peoples of northern Europe as well as that of the Persians from the East.
The army was formed by border and field units. The border limitanei units were to occupy the limes , the structured border fortifications, and were formed by professional soldiers with an inferior training.
The field units were to stay well behind the border, and to move quickly where they were needed, with both offensive and defensive roles. Field units were formed by elite soldiers with high-level training and weapons.
They were further divided into:. These units usually numbered between and 2, soldiers and some of them kept their original numbering schemes. The primary source for the legions of this era is the Notitia Dignitatum , a late 4th-century document containing all the civil and military offices of both halves of the Roman Empire revised in c.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The number of men, organization and selection methods changed over time. The tenth X was Julius Caesar's famous legion.
It was also named Legio X Equestris. Later, when it was combined with soldiers from other legions, it became Legio X Gemina. By the time of the first Roman emperor, Augustus , there were already 28 legions, most of which were commanded by a senatorial legate.
With the birth of the Roman Empire, the legions created a bond with their leader, the emperor himself. Each legion had another officer, called imaginifer , whose role was to carry a pike with the imago image, sculpture of the emperor as pontifex maximus.
Each legion, furthermore, had a vexillifer who carried a vexillum or signum , with the legion name and emblem depicted on it, unique to the legion.
It was common for a legion to detach some sub-units from the main camp to strengthen other corps.
In these cases, the detached subunits carried only the vexillum, and not the aquila, and were called, therefore, vexillationes.
A miniature vexillum, mounted on a silver base, was sometimes awarded to officers as a recognition of their service upon retirement or reassignment.
Civilians could also be rewarded for their assistance to the Roman legions. In return for outstanding service, a citizen was given an arrow without a head.
This was considered a great honour and would bring the recipient much prestige. The military discipline of the legions was quite harsh.
Regulations were strictly enforced, and a broad array of punishments could be inflicted upon a legionary who broke them.
Many legionaries became devotees in the cult of the minor goddess Disciplina , whose virtues of frugality, severity and loyalty were central to their code of conduct and way of life.
Montesquieu wrote that "the main reason for the Romans becoming masters of the world was that, having fought successively against all peoples, they always gave up their own practices as soon as they found better ones.
Examples of ideas that were copied and adapted include weapons like the gladius Iberians and warship design cf.
Carthaginians' quinquereme , as well as military units, such as heavy mounted cavalry and mounted archers Parthians and Numidians.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Roman legion disambiguation. See also: List of Roman legions.
Ancient heavy infantry unit of 1, to 5, men. This article needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.
Structural history. Army Unit types and ranks Decorations and punishments Legions. Auxilia Generals.
Fleets Admirals. Campaign history. Wars and battles. Technological history. Military engineering Castra Siege engines. Triumphal arches Roads. Political history.
Strategy and tactics. Infantry tactics. Frontiers and fortifications. Throughout ancient Roman history, a number of such legions were formed, took part in conflicts and wars, and then were ultimately disbanded.
Here is a list of the top 10 Roman legions:. He formed this legion specifically to get much needed offensive assistance in the civil war he perpetrated against the conservative republican leader Pompey.
The legion had a bull as its symbol as did pretty much every legion formed under Julius Caesar. The Gallica helped Caesar carry out major campaigns against the republic, the highlights being the battles of Pharsalus and Munda.
Historians also state that later, the Roman holders of power might have decided to send part of the legion to the vassal king Herod of Judaea.
The force that was sent was to assist the king in reclaiming the kingdom of Judaea. After the fall of Caesar, almost the entire Third Gallica was handed over to Mark Antony to assist him in the battles against the Parthians.
It is said that the brave men of the Gallica fought gallantly against the far stronger might of the Parthians. They eventually had to retreat but not before saving the rest of the Roman army already engaged in the battle.
This legion is famous in the history of the imperial Roman army and was considered to be a twin of the much revered Legio VI Ferrata. The Victrix played a crucial role in bringing Antony and Cleopatra to their knees by running through their opponents during the Pannonian campaigns of 39 to 36 BC.
Perhaps the biggest blow to any chances of Antony and Cleopatra claiming the empire came when Legio VI Victrix, along with other legions, defeated the enemy in the Battle of Actium.
The Victrix then went on to assist Augustus in his war against the Cantabrians that continued for almost 10 years starting in 29 BC. At some point, possibly in the beginning of the Roman Republic after the kings were overthrown , the legio was subdivided into two separate legions, each one ascribed to one of the two consuls.
In the first years of the Republic, when warfare was mostly concentrated on raiding, it is uncertain if the full manpower of the legions was summoned at any one time.
In BC, when three foreign threats emerged, the dictator Manius Valerius Maximus raised ten legions which Livy says was a greater number than had been raised previously at any one time.
Also, some warfare was still conducted by Roman forces outside the legionary structure, the most famous example being the campaign in BC by the clan army of gens Fabia against the Etruscan city of Veii in which the clan was annihilated.
Legions became more formally organized in the 4th century BC, as Roman warfare evolved to more frequent and planned operations, and the consular army was raised to two legions each.
In the Republic, legions had an ephemeral existence. Except for Legio I to IV, which were the consular armies two per consul , other units were levied by campaign.
Rome's Italian allies were required to provide a legion to support each Roman Legion. Each of these three lines was subdivided into usually 10 chief tactical units called maniples.
A maniple consisted of two centuries and was commanded by the senior of the two centurions. At this time, each century of hastati and principes consisted of 60 men; a century of triarii was 30 men.
These men twenty maniples of men, and ten maniples of 60 men , together with about velites and cavalry gave the mid Republican "manipular" legion a nominal strength of about men.
The Marian reforms of Gaius Marius enlarged the centuries to 80 men, and grouped them into 6-century "cohorts" rather than two-century maniples.
Each century had its own standard and was made up of ten units contubernia of eight men who shared a tent, a millstone, a mule and cooking pot.
Following the reforms of the general Marius in the 2nd century BC, the legions took on the second, narrower meaning that is familiar in the popular imagination as close-order citizen heavy infantry.
At the end of the 2nd century BC, Gaius Marius reformed the previously ephemeral legions as a professional force drawing from the poorest classes, enabling Rome to field larger armies and providing employment for jobless citizens of the city of Rome.
However, this put the loyalty of the soldiers in the hands of their general rather than the State of Rome itself. This development ultimately enabled Julius Caesar to cross the Rubicon with an army loyal to him personally and effectively end the Republic.
The legions of the late Republic and early Empire are often called Marian legions. He justified this action to the Senate by saying that in the din of battle he could not distinguish Roman from ally [ citation needed ].
This effectively eliminated the notion of allied legions; henceforth all Italian legions would be regarded as Roman legions, and full Roman citizenship was open to all the regions of Italy.
At the same time, the three different types of heavy infantry were replaced by a single, standard type based on the Principes : armed with two heavy javelins called pila singular pilum , the short sword called gladius , chain mail lorica hamata , helmet and rectangular shield scutum.
The role of allied legions would eventually be taken up by contingents of allied auxiliary troops, called Auxilia. Auxilia contained specialist units, engineers and pioneers, artillerymen and craftsmen, service and support personnel and irregular units made up of non-citizens, mercenaries and local militia.
These were usually formed into complete units such as light cavalry, light infantry or velites , and labourers. There was also a reconnaissance squad of 10 or more light mounted infantry called speculatores who could also serve as messengers or even as an early form of military intelligence service.
As part of the Marian reforms, the legions' internal organization was standardized. Each legion was divided into cohorts.
Prior to this, cohorts had been temporary administrative units or tactical task forces of several maniples, even more transitory than the legions themselves.
Now the cohorts were ten permanent units, composed of 6 centuries and in the case of the first cohort 12 centuries each led by a centurion assisted by an optio.
The cohorts came to form the basic tactical unit of the legions. Ranking within the legion was based on length of service, with the senior Centurion commanding the first century of the first cohort; he was called the primus pilus First File , and reported directly to the superior officers legates and tribuni.
All career soldiers could be promoted to the higher ranks in recognition of exceptional acts of bravery or valour. Each Legion had 59 or 60 centurions, one to command each centuria of the 10 cohorts.
They were the backbone of the professional army and were the career soldiers who ran the day to day life of the soldiers as well as issuing commands in the field.
They were generally moved up from the ranks, but in some cases could be direct appointments from the Emperor or other higher ranking officials. The cohorts were ranked from the First to the Tenth and the Centuria within each cohort ranked from 1 to 6, with only 5 Centuria in the First Cohort For a total of 59 Centuria and the Primus Pilus.
The Centuria that each Centurion commanded was a direct reflection of his rank. Command of the First Centuria of the First Cohort was the highest and the 6th Centuria of the 10th Cohort was the lowest.
The commander of the first cohort of each Centuria except the first , with the following titles for the Centurions in sequence throughout each Centuria.
The Principales would be the equivalent of modern day non-commissioned officers and had the following rank structures from highest to lowest:.
A single position within the Legion. The Aquilifer was the Legion's Standard or Eagle bearer and was an enormously important and prestigious position.
The next step up would be a post as a Centurion. Each Centuria had a Signifer He was responsible for the men's pay and savings, and the standard bearer for the Centurial Signum, a spear shaft decorated with medallions and often topped with an open hand to signify the oath of loyalty taken by the soldiers.
It was this banner that the men from each individual Centuria would rally around. A soldier could also gain the position of Discentes signiferorum, or standard bearer in training.
One for each Centurion 59 , they were appointed by the Centurion from within the ranks to act as his second in command.
Again there were 59 of these, or one for each Centuria. They acted in similar roles to the Optios. They worked hand in hand with the Signifer drawing the attention of the men to the Centurial Signum and issuing the audible commands of the officers.
Carried the Standard bearing the image of the Emperor as a constant reminder of the troop's loyalty to him. These were trained specialists, such as surgeons, engineers, surveyors, and architects, as well as craftsmen.
They were exempt from camp and hard labor duties due to the nature of their work, and would generally earn slightly more pay than the Milites.The rank of centurion was an officer grade that included many ranks, meaning centurions had very good prospects for promotion. April 21, Marco Reus NeffeSerbia. During the Dominate period near the end of the Empire, —legions were also professional, but are little understood Bs.To Mayans Mc to scarcity of evidence compared to the Principate. Erweiterter Merkzettel. Im Hintergrund ist eine römische Schlacht im Schatten der Abendsonne zu sehen. Die Geräuschkulisse ist wie immer.